What's the highlight of the new edition of urban public toilet design standard?
"The biggest highlight of the revision of the standard is the adjustment of the proportion of men's and women's toilets. The proportion of women's and men's toilets is 3:2, and the proportion of people in large areas is 2:1, which is mandatory." When the new version of "urban public toilet design standard" is about to be implemented, the relevant person in charge of the revision revealed.
Physiological conditions determine that women spend more time in toilet than men, and the frequency is also higher than men. Pregnant women and women in physiological period need more time, which means that women need more toilets than men. However, the scene of "ice and fire double sky" of "men's toilet door is cold and clear, women's toilet door is hot" is often staged around stations, shopping malls and tourist attractions. Catching up with the holiday, the unreasonable proportion of male and female toilets in urban public toilets has been widely criticized by the public.
Therefore, to increase the proportion of female toilets, increase the number of female toilets, and solve the problem of female toileting difficulty has become one of the important contents of the "public toilet revolution" in the city.
The new standard highlights the fundamental change of the design concept of urban public toilets, that is, the use of male toilets is the main consideration, while the proportion and quantity of female toilets are also considered. "Compulsory" shows the determination of the Ministry of housing and urban rural development, as the competent department of the industry, to improve the design and construction level of urban public toilets, and to effectively solve the problem of disharmony in the proportion of male and female toilets and the difficulty of female toilets. On the fourth "World Toilet Day", the "supply side reform" of women's toilets advocated by the Ministry of housing and urban rural development effectively promoted the "public toilet revolution" from a small point of view and from the practical point of view.
Revise the standard and increase the supply of women's toilets from the point of design
"According to the new standard, urinals in men's toilets are no longer listed separately, but are uniformly included in men's toilets, which in fact increases the proportion of women's toilets." Zhang Yuanfang, senior engineer of Beijing Institute of environmental health design and research, who is responsible for the revision of the design standard for urban public toilets, said.
Take a toilet with 8 squatting (sitting) positions as an example. According to the current standard, there are 4 male squatting (sitting) positions and 4 female squatting (sitting) positions in the toilet, i.e. the proportion is 1:1. However, there are four positions in the men's toilet at the same time, i.e. urinal, which are usually not included. Therefore, in fact, the number of male toilets is twice that of female toilets. If the transformation is carried out according to the new standard, and the maximum ratio of women's and men's toilets is 2:1, there are 4 squatting (sitting) positions and 4 urinals in men's toilets, i.e. 8 toilet positions, and the number of women's toilets should be 16, much more than now. The ratio of female squatting (sitting) position to male squatting (sitting) position has actually reached 8:2, that is, 4:1. "This is also a basic premise determined by us when revising the standard. It is to increase the proportion of women's toilets and the number of women's toilets while maintaining the same number of men's toilets." Zhang said.
The new standard sets the ratio of female toilet space to male toilet space at 3:2, so how is the figure determined? Based on what?
Before the revision of the design standard for urban public toilets, the Beijing Institute of environmental health design and research organized staff to conduct field research on 234 toilets in 8 cities. An important part of the research is the number and proportion of men's and women's toilets, the queuing situation of men and women, the length of queuing time, and even the location of queuing to the toilet.
"We have organized a large number of manpower to carry out research on 7 fixed toilets and 9 temporary toilets from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. every day during the" May 1st "and" 11th "three years in a row. According to statistics, the total number of people going to the toilet is 725855; the average time for women to go to the toilet is 249 seconds, and for men is 170 seconds. " Zhang said. The revised new standard puts forward that "the ratio of female to male toilets should be 3:2", which is mandatory and "must be implemented".
"We squat at the door of the toilet and count the data one by one. It's reliable." "Of course, this ratio is not simply" one size fits all, "said Xu Chunli, an engineer at the Beijing Institute of environmental health design science
The design and construction of urban public toilets should not only keep a dynamic balance with the increasing demand of women for urban public space and public facilities, but also take into account the number of men and women in different places. Therefore, while the ratio of female toilet to male toilet should be 3:2, the new standard gives a formula for calculating the ratio of female toilet to male toilet, that is, r = 1.5w/m. Among them, W is the number of women and M is the number of men. According to this formula, different public places can more flexibly determine the proportion and number of female and male toilets according to the actual situation.
In the case of women's schools and troops, there are usually no male or female toilets in public toilets because of the absolute inclination of the number of women and men. At the same time, the new standard puts forward that "the proportion of women's and men's toilets in areas with large flow of people should be 2:1", which is also determined by relevant departments according to the actual situation in the case of large flow of people. "The purpose of such regulations is to make the standards more flexible and widely applicable to different regions, cities and places, and to make the design and construction of public toilets more reasonable based on the actual needs of women's toilets." Zhang said.
Increase the total amount and fundamentally guarantee the convenience of women
According to the results of investigation on the use of public toilets by Beijing Institute of environmental health design and science, the reason for the frequent queue of women's toilets is not only that the proportion of men's and women's toilets in the design is out of balance, but also that the total amount of toilets is not enough, especially in the center of the city, around famous tourist attractions and other places with relatively large flow.
To solve the problem of women's toileting difficulty, it is the fundamental way to increase the proportion of women's toilets from the design standard, and to increase the number of women's toilets by increasing the total number of toilets is the most direct and effective way.
According to statistics, in the 20 years from 1994 to 2014, the number of urban public toilets increased from 96234 to 124410, with an average annual increase of 1409. In order to increase the number of toilets, the local housing and urban rural construction authorities not only build the facilities in combination with the construction of urban public infrastructure, the construction of new buildings and public buildings in the urban area, but also integrate the construction of road reconstruction, river training, green space improvement, etc. At the same time, guide the relevant units to open the internal toilets to the outside world, and use the market-oriented model for construction. However, in general, the outstanding problem is that the total amount of public toilets is not enough, and the number of female toilets is not enough.
To increase the number of toilets, one is to build new toilets, the other is to rebuild, that is, to demolish the old toilets and rebuild the original sites. According to industry insiders, under the "neighbor avoidance effect", it is very difficult in both aspects, which is not easy. In particular, it is difficult to rebuild the existing public toilets after demolition. Many units and residents still view toilets in a traditional way. They are afraid of being dirty and smelly. No one is willing to let toilets be built near their homes. Some not only contradict in thought, but also in action, even squatting on the construction site to block the construction. However, the areas that need urgent renovation or new public toilets are often the areas where women are particularly difficult to go to the toilet.
"Of course, in public places such as parks and some tourist attractions, it is very important to strengthen guidance and tips so that everyone can find the public toilets as soon as possible and disperse the flow of people in the toilets in time, so as to alleviate the difficulty of toilet use." Zhang said. At present, in terms of guidance of public toilets, in addition to the traditional practice of setting direction signs in combination with road lamp posts and traffic sign posts, and setting guidance maps of public toilets in combination with garbage cans and fruit boxes on both sides of the road, there are also places where app software such as "find public toilets" has been launched by using "Internet +", or special personnel are arranged to guide during the peak period of tourism, so that citizens and tourists can find the shortest time The nearby toilets greatly facilitate the people's toileting, especially the "convenience" of women suffering from queuing.
Perfect the supporting facilities to meet the diversified needs of women's toileting
The condition of a city's public toilet is directly related to people's health and living environment. Convenience, which was previously considered to be a matter of personal privacy and difficult to get on the stage, has been paid more and more attention by city managers and decision makers. The ultimate goal of the "public toilet revolution" is to fully protect the right of the people to use the toilet and make the people live a happier life. In modern cities, women are more and more involved in social life and public affairs. It has become a livelihood issue to solve the problem of women's toileting. A reasonable design and construction of public toilets is not only conducive to maintaining the basic public order, but also can enhance women's sense of social belonging, making women's life more dignified, calm and happy.
From scratch, from low level to high level, from only requiring sanitation and cleaning to having relevant supporting facilities, is a main vein of urban public toilet construction in China. These supporting facilities include not only the most basic and common hand washing facilities, but also the humanized facilities gradually improved according to the demands of the masses - mother and infant toilets, special toilets for children and the elderly, etc. For women who need to take care of accompanying children and the elderly, these supporting facilities meet their diversified toilet needs and greatly improve their toilet happiness.
"This mother and baby toilet is so convenient." "I didn't expect that the mall also has such a mother and baby toilet beside the public toilet, with sofa and crib, which is very convenient," said Ms. Li, who nursed her baby in the mother and baby toilet of a mall in Chaoyang District, Beijing. The beauty of it is that it has some peculiar smell. "
Ms. Li probably didn't know that the newly revised design standard for urban public toilets would solve the problem of toilet odor prevention. In terms of the selection of building materials, the new standard requires not only the use of sanitary appliances with good anti odor effect, but also the use of high-quality materials with strong anti-seepage function on the ground and wall, so that even if there is fecal spillage, it will not penetrate into the building and accumulate lasting odor. In addition, in terms of ventilation measures, whether natural ventilation or mechanical ventilation, the minimum ventilation volume is specified, and the position of the vent shall be determined by the professional organization after measurement and calculation to ensure that the odor can be discharged in time. At the same time, the new public toilets are required to be equipped with vent pipes in the main passage, which is not only convenient for the odor to be discharged, but also ensure that each compartment is connected with the outdoor atmosphere, and the odor will not affect other compartments when flushing.
The "supply side reform" of the Ministry of housing and urban rural development of the people's Republic of China will not only make it easier for women to go to the toilet, but also make them happier.
Original: China Construction News Author: Li Yuqing, Wu Guowen