Deng Kebiao: the development direction of environmental protection toilet
In urban planning, the construction of environmental protection toilets has become a trend of development, which is to reduce pollution, protect the natural environment and achieve sustainable development.
At present, there are many kinds of environmental protection toilets, which have the following characteristics: less investment, small land occupation, low operation cost, water saving or no water, so as to make the waste return to nature and sustainable use, so as to reduce the pressure on the environment and maximize the environmental protection efficiency. The common ones are as follows:
Circulating water type, all of these toilets are called "flush" toilets. It uses biochemical treatment technology to collect the used flushing water and then achieve the "reclaimed water" standard through multiple purification, and then flush the toilet, so it is repeatedly used. It mainly adopts the international advanced biological treatment technology, the purified water can be recycled, and the water saving rate is as high as 85%. In addition, the purified water is odorless and can be used for fish farming, flower watering, washing and road spraying. Septic tanks only need to be cleaned once a year. The summer palace and the Ming Tombs have been completed and put into use.
Water free type. This kind of toilet is a mechanical device with mechanical and electrical integration. It uses biodegradable plastic bags to pack and seal the waste and collect it for centralized treatment. No need for sewer, low operating cost, water conservation, and waste water resource, to achieve a virtuous ecological cycle, reduce the links of sewage treatment, in line with the principle of sustainable development. Badaling Great Wall, Jiuzhaigou and other tourist attractions as well as some transportation routes are widely used.
Microbial type, also known as advanced "dry toilet", is to use effective microorganisms to completely degrade feces into a mixture of water and gas in a short time (4 to 8 hours), and use it to wash feces. It does not use external water and saves water resources. At present, the summer palace, botanical garden and Taoranting park have their model projects.
Foam water-saving toilet, this kind of toilet is to foam a very small amount of water into thousands of times of foam to cover in the toilet, change the traditional water seal into foam seal, so that the urine will slide into the septic tank under the effect of foam. After ecological treatment, virus and eggs are killed to form high-efficiency harmless organic fertilizer. 14 such toilets have been built in Beijing, Kunming, Suzhou and other cities.
Dry type odorless compost toilet, which is similar to water free toilet and microbial toilet, does not need water flushing, and uses microorganisms to decompose and corrode manure into compost products. The toilet has the advantages of low maintenance cost, water saving, no environmental pollution and good composting. This kind of toilet has been widely used in the United States, Cuba, South America and other countries, as well as in Changsha, Hunan Province of China.
The intelligent environmental protection toilet is a kind of toilet with the characteristics of intelligence, ecology and environmental protection by introducing the intelligent system into the toilet to realize the automatic management of the toilet. The cost and operation cost of this kind of toilet are both high, so it is difficult to popularize it on a large scale.
The intelligent ecological toilet is applicable to all public places that can not provide water supply and drainage facilities and hope to save water, such as tourist area, field operation area, means of transportation, large-scale assembly, military field, etc.
Environmental protection toilets must be applied by certain modern scientific and technological means, which can help to change or reduce the pollution of traditional public toilets' emissions to the surrounding environment; can help to change or reduce the consumption of natural ecological materials that traditional public toilets have to pay for cleaning and eliminating emissions; can recycle and use the emissions ecologically; can humanize the design In terms of appearance design, it pays attention to the harmony with the surrounding landscape and becomes an organic part of the landscape; it can maintain toilets with toilets. We must run the environmental awareness through the whole process of design, including the evaluation, analysis, organization, site planning, structure selection, auxiliary facility design, space form and appearance form of ecological environment facilities.